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TR= Therapeutic Riding

EAAT= Equine-Assisted Activities and Therapies

EAI = Equine-Assisted Intervention,

EFI= Equine Facilitated Intervention

TR, EAAT, EAI, EFI have an equivalent meaning.



Education and Training are carried out  in collaboration with the Chair of Child Neuropsychiatry and the Neuroscience Department, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Florence:


  • 1995/1996: Ist and IInd “TR University Course” (Florence-Tuscania, 19-24 September 1995) (Florence-Tuscania 8-12 September 1996)

       These represent the first University Courses in TR organized by the Chair of Child Neuropsychiatry, University of Florence, in collaboration with         Lapo Association. In both Courses, lectures have been held in the medical-rehabilitative and equestrian fields, TR practical activity has been               performed, TR problems emerging at national level have been gathered and the interchange between persons involved in TR has been                     promoted.


  • From 1995 until now: "Italian Study Group on TR": this is a multi-professional group with scientific aims which arised from the needs emerged during the “TR University Course”. It was founded by Lapo Association in collaboration with the Chair of Child Neuropsychiatry. The group meets once a year. It is made up of TR Centers, Associations, Bodies, Professionals (physicians, rehabilitation therapists, social educators, horse riding instructors, involved in TR. The principal activities of this group are: up-to-date on TR on various topics (scientific, organisational, legislative, etc.); discussion of video recordings concerning dubious cases and methodological problems; up-to-date on TR at International Level (research, education/training, relationship between national and international Bodies, International Congresses, bibliographic news, etc). This group, furthermore, plays a very important role in the interaction and exchange between various Centers and, at any rate, between all those people who are interested in TR. It is, in fact, the first and only Italian Study Group on TR. All of this has allowed the operators of the various TR Centers and the various professions interested in TR to meet one another, to confront one another, to enter into discussion, to have virtually continuous updating.

       Since 2008 once a year, TR Personnel Update Training is organised.


  • From 1995 to 2012: “TR Training Course for Post-Graduate Degree in Child Neuropsychiatry”, University of Florence: it has been included within the Chair’s teaching activities (Training Course in TR - "Subroutine in TR"). Physicians attending the Post-Graduate School and working at the Child Neuropsychiatric University Clinic have been selected based on of motivations having to do with both rehabilitation and riding. A Professor of the University Post-Graduate School who had already acquired experience in riding and in TR supervised the entire teaching program and organisation. This Course comprised: didactic activities that consisted in attending a “Theoretical/Practical TR Course” of 200 hours set up by the “Lapo” Association in collaboration with the above-mentioned Chair; practical activities that were supervised by the Chair’s TR experts (Prof. Pasquinelli, Dr. Allori); these activities were conducted in the Child Neuropsychiatric University Clinic and in the “Lapo TR Centres” and consisted in the carrying out the TR programme on the subject assigned to the specialising physician, including the application of Assessment Protocols and possibly also the participation in research activities of the Chair itself.

       We specialised in TR about 60 Child Neuropsychiatrists. Many of them have become the Medical Specialist of the TR team in the TR Centres.


  •  From1997 until now: annual "Theoretical-Practical Training Course in EAAT/TR", 200 hours and since 2017, 250 hours; Certificate of   Therapist/Instructor in EAAT/TR (Intermediate Level) and, from 2017, also the “Eligibility Certificate in AAI” according to the National   Guidelines on Animal-Assisted Intervention (AAI) (Project Manager in AAI, Person in Charge in AAI, Horse Handler), accredited at National    Level.

The Course is annual and is organised in collaboration with the University. A special agreement with the University was signed based on which is also allowed to attend for free to Physicians specializing in Neuroscience (Neurology, Child Neuropsychiatry, Psychiatry).

Organised by Lapo Association, it took place with the collaboration of the Department of Child Neuropsychiatry and subsequently the Department of Neuroscience, Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Florence, and the Lapo TR Centers accredited for TR Training.

The Course is addressed to all those who are interested in acquiring theoretical/practical knowledge in the field of EAAT/TR: professionals in the social, healthcare and educational area, in the riding sector. A fairly good riding ability even not on competitive level is required but for those who want to achieve the Eligibility Certificate in “Horse Handler” the horsemanship requirements are good riding ability (comparable to a F.I.S.E. Horse Riding License B) and good knowledge of horses and their management.

The objectives of the Course are those of providing education and training in the fields of disability (main clinical aspects of child neuropsychiatry, neurology, psychiatry, intellectual disability), of AAI and specifically of EAI with particular attention to the methodology of application, programming and verifying, of the equestrian sector (horse biomechanics, horse management, riding), necessary to conduct EAI/TR activities and to acquire the indispensable theoretical-practical competencies required for multi-disciplinary integration within the EAI/TR team.

An important part of the Course consists of practical activity ( internship) at the “Lapo TR Centres” and subsequent analysis of the work carried out with individual subjects.

Aim of the Course: training of Therapist/Instructor in EAAT/TR and attainment of the nationally recognized “Eligibility Certificate in AAI” mandatory to work in EAI/TR in Italy.


  • 1999/2000 – 2000/2001: collaboration with the Florence University for the “University Advanced Course in TR” of the Faculty of Medicine which is converted in


  • 2002 up until today into the two-years "UNIVERSITY MASTER IN TR", now called “UNIVERSITY MASTER IN EAAT/TR", duration two-years, 90 University Credits - ECTS (equivalent to 2.250 hours of total workload), organised by the Faculty of Medicine and Surgery in collaboration with Lapo Association that is Partner of the University for Master organisation, practical activity, training in TR through its “Lapo TR Centers”.

       Entry Criteria:

A) Curriculum Requirements:- University Degree - University Diploma in one of the following areas: social/health care, rehabilitation, and education or equivalent professions.

B) Horsemanship Requirements: good riding ability even not on competitive level (comparable to a FISE (Italian Equestrian Federation) Horse Riding License B and good knowledge of horses. Candidates who do not possess F.I.S.E. Horse Riding License B must acquire them during the 1st year of the course).

The objectives of the Master are those of providing in-depth cultural education and training in the fields of AAI and specifically in EAAT with particular attention to the methodology of application, child neuropsychiatry, neurology, psychiatry, sensorineural disorders, psychology, orthopaedics, EAAT/TR rehabilitation and re-education, EAAT/TR methodology, veterinary medicine, horse biomechanics, horse management/welfare and riding necessary to conduct EAAT/TR activities and to acquire the indispensable theoretical-practical competencies required for multi-disciplinary integration within the TR team.

        Aim of the Master: attainment of

a) MASTER DEGREE IN EAAT/TR: setting up and training the professional figure of “Therapeutic Riding Technical Coordinator” (role: setting up and organizing of a TR Centre; coordination and conduction of TR activities in collaboration with the TR team; collaboration in the training of TR professionals and TR training courses) (Rectorial Decrees);

b) “ELIGIBILITY CERTIFICATE in AAI”, nationally recognized, specific for the individual professionals according to the National Guidelines for AAI (Project Manager, Person in Charge of Intervention, Veterinarian expert in AAI, Horse Handler) mandatory to work in EAI/TR in Italy

It represents one of the first university experience in TR on the world-wide level.







  • a.y. 2006/2007: “University MASTER in Animal-Assisted Activities and Therapies (AAA/AAT)” Faculty of Veterinary Medicine and Medicine, University of Perugia; Teachers: Dr. Weber, Prof. Pasquinelli, Dr. Allori, Pt. Raupach


  • a.y. 2007/2008: “University MASTER in TR” Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Turin in collaboration with SUISM, University of Turin and International Horse Center Foundation “La Venaria Reale”; Member of the Executive Committee: Ms. Rabbia Piccolo, Teachers: Ms. Rabbia Piccolo, Prof. Pasquinelli, Dr. Allori, Pt. Raupach


  • 2010: “Advanced Course in Rehabilitation in water” Faculty of Medicine, University of Florence; Teachers: Prof. Pasquinelli, Dr. Allori


  • from a.y. 2010/2011 to 2013/2014 collaboration to the Elective Educational Activity in TR of the Degree Course “Therapy of Child Neuro and Psychomotricity”, Faculty of Medicine, University of Florence, ECTS 2, theoretical-practical activity





  • 22-30 May 2004 Legnago, Verona: “Theoretical-practical Course on Equine-Assisted Therapy: Pet-Therapy, consolidated experiences and new operational horizons”. Organised by Local Health Authority 21; Teacher: Prof. Pasquinelli


  • 2006 October/2007 February Pavia: Advanced Course “Disabled on Horseback” organised by “Sogni e Cavalli ONLUS” Association and Voluntary Service Center, Pavia; Teachers: Prof. Pasquinelli, Dr. Allori


  • 20-21 October 2007 Chiavari, Genoa: Training Course “Together with…..Autism and Disability: knowledge sharing” organised by ASL 4 “Chiavarese” Child Neuropsychiatric Health Service and by Maria Luigia Social Cooperative, in collaboration with Entella Horse Riding Center. (Chiavari); Teacher: Dr. Allori


  • 2010 November/2011 March Florence: “Educational Seminars on Autism Spectrum Disorder and insertion of sport and rehabilitation activities in the habilitation programme” organised by Ulisse Association Onlus, Autism Path, ASL 10 Local Health Service Florence, Autism Association, Autism Spectrum Disorder Association, Florence; Teachers: Prof. Pasquinelli, Dr. Allori


  • 9 April 2011 Milan: “Advanced Course for SEF Italy Technicians “The Equestrian Professionals at School”; Teacher: Prof. Pasquinelli


  • 22 June 2013 Civitanova Marche “Seminar on Therapeutic Riding: Emotions that heal” Casa di Cura Villa dei Pini; Teacher: Prof. Pasquinelli


  • 21 September 2013, Pesaro “Update Day on Therapeutic Riding  for Equine-Assisted Therapy and Rehabilitation Professionals”; Teacher: Prof. Pasquinelli


  • 7 October 2017, Mossa (Gorizia) “Workshop on rehabilitation activities by means the horses” “Il Mosaico” Consortium - Mayor of Mossa - Bassa Friulana Local Health Service – Mental Health Department. Presentations: Prof. Pasquinelli, Pt Raupach, Dr. Mazzotta





  • 2005-2008 collaboration with “TR FISE Department” for the organisation, and teaching at the “Theoretical-Practical TR Course”, 120 hours, annual, for the TR specialisation of the Horse Riding Instructors


  • 2005-2008 collaboration with “TR FISE Department” for the organisation, and teaching of the Update FISE Courses for Technicians specialised in TR


  • 2013 and 2014 Teaching at FISE TR Technician Courses, Teaching Unit No.2; Teachers: Prof. Pasquinelli, Ms. Rabbia Piccolo, Riding Instructor Piccolo, Dr. Montagnana


  • 2015 Teaching at FISE TR Technician Course, Teacing Unit No. 3 Emilia Romagna; Teachers: Prof. Pasquinelli, Ms. Rabbia Piccolo, Dr. Mazzotta, Pt Raupach


  • 2015 Teaching at FISE Paralympic Technician Course, Tuscany; Teachers: Prof. Pasquinelli, Pt Raupach


  • 2016 Teaching at FISE TR Technician Course, Teaching Unit No. 2 Tuscany; Teachers: Prof. Pasquinelli, Pt Raupach


  • 2/3/2016 Signing of the Memorandum of Understanding between FISE and Lapo Association and of the Qualification Equivalence Protocol between Lapo Operator/Therapist and FISE TR Qualifications






  • Up-dated TR bibliographic availability and TR thesis

  •  Support in guidance and didactics to undergraduate and post-graduate students relating to TR (since 1995)

  • Tutoring and assistance for TR degree thesis in Medicine, Psychology, Educational Science, Physical Education at the national level

  • Seminars, didactic workshop also at equestrian Centers in the national territory( since 1996)

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